HTML Character Reference

A browser needs to know what character set to use in order to display an HTML page correctly. In the early days of the web there was no real problem, since the only character set used for web pages was the ASCII character set. Today, a long process of internationalisation has resulted in the evolution of a number of international character sets. The default character set for modern browsers is ISO-8859-1, which is used in North America, Western Europe, Latin America and Africa. Many other character sets exist, however, and are used in different parts of the world. Because these character sets are limited in size and are often incompatible with one another, the Unicode Consortium has developed the Unicode Standard which includes all of the characters, punctuation and symbols in the world. Unicode allows the exchange of text data across international boundaries, regardless of the computing platforms or languages used. It is supported in many operating systems and in all modern browsers, and replaces existing character sets with its standard Unicode Transformation Format (UTF). The most commonly used encodings (UTF-8 and UTF-16) are described below.

  1. UTF-8 - characters range from one to four bytes in length. UTF-8 can represent any character in the Unicode standard, is backwardly compatible with ASCII, and is the preferred character encoding for e-mail and web documents.
  2. UTF-16 - character length is variable (up to 16 bits). UTF-8 can represent any character in the Unicode standard and is used in major operating system environments.

The first 256 characters of Unicode character-sets correspond to the 256 characters of ISO-8859-1, which is the default character set for most browsers. The first 128 characters of ISO-8859-1 in turn correspond to the 128 characters of the ASCII character set, while the last 128 characters include characters used by Western European countries and some commonly used special characters. The ISO-8859-1 character set, together with all of the other HTML character and symbol entities you are ever likely to need, are summarised in the tables below.



Character Set ISO-8559-1 (000–031) - ASCII Control Characters
CodeAbbrDescription
000NULNull character
001SOHStart of Header
002STXStart of Text
003ETXEnd of Text
004EOTEnd Of Transmission
005ENQEnquiry
006ACKAcknowledgment
007BELBell
008BSBackspace
009HTHorizontal Tab
010LFLine Feed
011VTVertical Tab
012FFForm Feed
013CRCarriage Return
014SOShift Out
015SIShift In
016DLEData Link Escape
017DC1Device Control 1 (XON)
018DC2Device Control 2
019DC3Device Control 3 (XOFF)
020DC4Device Control 4
021NAKNegative Acknowledgment
022SYNSynchronous Idle
023ETBEnd of Transmission Block
024CANCancel
025EMEnd of Medium
026SUBSubstitute
027ESCEscape
028FSFile Separator
029GSGroup Separator
030RSRecord Separator
031USUnit Separator



Character Set ISO-8559-1 (032–127) - ASCII Printing Characters
CodeCharacterDescription
032[SP]Space
033!Exclamation mark
034"Quotation mark (HTML: ")
035#Cross hatch
036$Dollar sign
037%Percent sign
038&Ampersand (HTML: &)
039'Closing single quote (HTML: ')
040(Opening parenthesis
041)Closing parenthesis
042*Asterisk
043+Plus sign
044,Comma
045-Minus sign
046.Period
047/Solidus (forward slash)
0480Zero
0491One
0502Two
0513Three
0524Four
0535Five
0546Six
0557Seven
0568Eight
0579Nine
058:Colon
059;Semi-colon
060<Less-than symbol (HTML: &lt;)
061=Equals symbol
062>Greater-than symbol (HTML: &gt;)
063?Question mark
064@Arroba (at symbol)
065AUpper case A
066BUpper case B
067CUpper case C
068DUpper case D
069EUpper case E
070FUpper case F
071GUpper case G
072HUpper case H
073IUpper case I
074JUpper case J
075KUpper case K
076LUpper case L
077MUpper case M
078NUpper case N
079OUpper case O
080PUpper case P
081QUpper case Q
082RUpper case R
083SUpper case S
084TUpper case T
085UUpper case U
086VUpper case V
087WUpper case W
088XUpper case X
089YUpper case Y
090ZUpper case Z
091[Opening square bracket
092\Reverse slant (backslash)
093]Closing square bracket
094^Caret
095_Underscore
096`Opening single quote
097aLower case a
098bLower case b
099cLower case c
100dLower case d
101eLower case e
102fLower case f
103gLower case g
104hLower case h
105iLower case i
106jLower case j
107kLower case k
108lLower case l
109mLower case m
110nLower case n
111oLower case o
112pLower case p
113qLower case q
114rLower case r
115sLower case s
116tLower case t
117uLower case u
118vLower case v
119wLower case w
120xLower case x
121yLower case y
122zLower case z
123{Opening curly brace
124|Vertical line
125}Closing curly brace
126~Tilde
127[DEL]Delete



Character Set ISO-8559-1 (128–159) - Extended Control Characters
CodeAbbrDescription
128PADPadding character
129HOPHigh Octet Preset
130BPHBreak Permitted Here
131NBHNo Break Here
132INDIndex
133NELNext Line
134SSAStart of Selected Area
135ESAEnd of Selected Area
136HTSHorizontal Tabulation Set
137HTJHorizontal Tabulation with Justification
138VTSVertical Tabulation Set
139PLDPartial Line Down
140PLUPartial Line Up
141RIReverse Index
142SS2Single-Shift 2
143SS3Single-Shift 3
144DCSDevice Control String
145PU1Private Use 1
146PU2Private Use 2
147STSSet Transmit State
148CCHCancel Character
149MWMessage Waiting
150SPAStart of Protected Area
151EPAEnd of Protected Area
152SOSStart Of String
153SGC1Single Graphic Character Introducer
154SCISingle Character Introducer
155CSIControl Sequence Introducer
156STString Terminator
157OSCOperating System Command
158PMPrivacy Message
159APCApplication Program Command



Character Set ISO-8559-1 (160–255) - ISO 8859-1 Characters and Symbols
CodeCharacterHTML EntityDescription
160[NBSP]&nbsp;Non-breaking space
161¡&iexcl;Inverted exclamation mark
162¢&cent;Cent symbol
163£&pound;Pound symbol
164¤&curren;Currency symbol
165¥&yen;Yen symbol
166¦&brvbar;Broken vertical bar
167§&sect;Section symbol
168¨&uml;Spacing diaeresis
169©&copy;Copyright symbol
170ª&ordf;Feminine ordinal indicator
171«&laquo;Angle quotation mark (left)
172¬&not;Negation symbol
173[SHY]&shy;Soft hyphen
174®&reg;Registered trademark symbol
175¯&macr;Spacing macron;
176°&deg;Degree symbol
177±&plusmn;Plus-or-minus symbol
178²&sup2;Superscript 2
179³&sup3;Superscript 3
180´&acute;Spacing acute
181µ&micro;Micro symbol
182&para;Paragraph symbol
183·&middot;Middle dot
184¸&cedil;Spacing cedilla
185¹&sup1;Superscript 1
186º&ordm;Masculine ordinal indicator
187»&raquo;Angle quotation mark (right)
188¼&frac14;Fraction (1/4)
189½&frac12;Fraction (1/2)
190¾&frac34;Fraction (3/4)
191¿&iquest;Inverted question mark
192À&Agrave;Capital A, grave accent
193Á&Aacute;Capital A, acute accent
194Â&Acirc;Capital A, circumflex accent
195Ã&Atilde;Capital A, tilde
196Ä&Auml;Capital A, umlaut mark
197Å&Aring;Capital A, ring
198Æ&AElig;Capital AE
199Ç&Ccedil;Capital C, cedilla
200È&Egrave;Capital E, grave accent
201É&Eacute;Capital E, acute accent
202Ê&Ecirc;Capital E, circumflex accent
203Ë&Euml;Capital E, umlaut mark
204Ì&Igrave;Capital I, grave accent
205Í&Iacute;Capital I, acute accent
206Î&Icirc;Capital I, circumflex accent
207Ï&Iuml;Capital I, umlaut mark
208Ð&ETH;Capital ETH, Icelandic
209Ñ&Ntilde;Capital N, tilde
210Ò&Ograve;Capital O, grave accent
211Ó&Oacute;Capital O, acute accent
212Ô&Ocirc;Capital O, circumflex accent
213Õ&Otilde;Capital O, tilde
214Ö&Ouml;Capital O, umlaut mark
215×&times;Multiplication symbol
216Ø&Oslash;Capital O, slash
217Ù&Ugrave;Capital U, grave accent
218Ú&Uacute;Capital U, acute accent
219Û&Ucirc;Capital U, circumflex accent
220Ü&Uuml;Capital U, umlaut mark
221Ý&Yacute;Capital Y, acute accent
222Þ&THORN;Capital THORN, Icelandic
223ß&szlig;Small sharp s, German
224à&agrave;Small a, grave accent
225á&aacute;Small a, acute accent
226â&acirc;Small a, circumflex accent
227ã&atilde;Small a, tilde
228ä&auml;Small a, umlaut mark
229å&aring;Small a, ring
230æ&aelig;Small ae
231ç&ccedil;Small c, cedilla
232è&egrave;Small e, grave accent
233é&eacute;Small e, acute accent
234ê&ecirc;Small e, circumflex accent
235ë&euml;Small e, umlaut mark
236ì&igrave;Small i, grave accent
237í&iacute;Small i, acute accent
238î&icirc;Small i, circumflex accent
239ï&iuml;Small i, umlaut mark
240ð&eth;Small eth, Icelandic
241ñ&ntilde;Small n, tilde
242ò&ograve;Small o, grave accent
243ó&oacute;Small o, acute accent
244ô&ocirc;Small o, circumflex accent
245õ&otilde;Small o, tilde
246ö&ouml;Small o, umlaut mark
247÷&divide;Division symbol
248ø&oslash;Small o, slash
249ù&ugrave;Small u, grave accent
250ú&uacute;Small u, acute accent
251û&ucirc;Small u, circumflex accent
252ü&uuml;Small u, umlaut mark
253ý&yacute;Small y, acute accent
254þ&thorn;Small thorn, Icelandic
255ÿ&yuml;Small y, umlaut mark



HTML Character and Symbol Entities (Greek Alphabet)
CodeCharacterHTML EntityName
913Α&Alpha;Alpha
914Β&Beta;Beta
915Γ&Gamma;Gamma
916Δ&Delta;Delta
917Ε&Epsilon;Epsilon
918Ζ&Zeta;Zeta;
919Η&Eta;Eta
920Θ&Theta;Theta
921Ι&Iota;Iota
922Κ&Kappa;Kappa
923Λ&Lambda;Lambda
924Μ&Mu;Mu
925Ν&Nu;Nu
926Ξ&Xi;Xi
927Ο&Omicron;Omicron
928Π&Pi;Pi
929Ρ&Rho;Rho
931Σ&Sigma;Sigma
932Τ&Tau;Tau
933Υ&Upsilon;Upsilon
934Φ&Phi;Phi
935Χ&Chi;Chi
936Ψ&Psi;Psi
937Ω&Omega;Omega
945α&alpha;alpha
946β&beta;beta
947γ&gamma;gamma
948δ&delta;delta
949ε&epsilon;epsilon
950ζ&zeta;zeta
951η&eta;eta
952θ&theta;theta
953ι&iota;iota
954κ&kappa;kappa
955λ&lambda;lambda
956μ&mu;mu
957ν&nu;nu
958ξ&xi;xi
959ο&omicron;omicron
960π&pi;pi
961ρ&rho;rho
962ς&sigmaf;sigmaf
963σ&sigma;sigma
964τ&tau;tau
965υ&upsilon;upsilon
966φ&phi;phi
967χ&chi;chi
968ψ&psi;psi
969ω&omega;omega
977ϑ&thetasym;theta symbol
978ϒ&upsih;upsilon symbol
982ϖ&piv;pi symbol



HTML Character and Symbol Entities (Maths)
CodeCharacterHTML EntityDescription
8704&forall;for all
8706&part;part
8707&exists;exists
8709&empty;empty
8711&nabla;nabla
8712&isin;isin
8713&notin;notin
8715&ni;ni
8719&prod;prod
8721&sum;sum
8722&minus;minus
8727&lowast;lowast
8730&radic;square root
8733&prop;proportional to
8734&infin;infinity
8736&ang;angle
8743&and;and
8744&or;or
8745&cap;cap
8746&cup;cup
8747&int;integral
8756&there4;therefore
8764&sim;similar to
8773&cong;approximately equal
8776&asymp;almost equal
8800&ne;not equal
8801&equiv;equivalent
8804&le;less or equal
8805&ge;greater or equal
8834&sub;subset of
8835&sup;superset of
8836&nsub;not subset of
8838&sube;subset or equal
8839&supe;superset or equal
8853&oplus;circled plus
8855&otimes;cirled times
8869&perp;perpendicular



HTML Character and Symbol Entities (Other)
CodeCharacterHTML EntityDescription
338Œ&OElig;Capital ligature OE
339œ&oelig;Small ligature oe
352Š&Scaron;Capital S with caron
353š&scaron;Small s with caron
376Ÿ&Yuml;Capital Y with diaeres
402ƒ&fnof;F with hook
710ˆ&circ;Modifier letter circumflex accent
732˜&tilde;Small tilde
8194&ensp;en space
8195&emsp;em space
8201&thinsp;thin space
8204&zwnj;zero width non-joiner
8205&zwj;zero width joiner
8206&lrm;left-to-right mark
8207&rlm;right-to-left mark
8211&ndash;en dash
8212&mdash;em dash
8216&lsquo;left single quotation mark
8217&rsquo;right single quotation mark
8218&sbquo;single low-9 quotation mark
8220&ldquo;left double quotation mark
8221&rdquo;right double quotation mark
8222&bdquo;double low-9 quotation mark
8224&dagger;dagger
8225&Dagger;double dagger
8226&bull;bullet
8230&hellip;horizontal ellipsis
8240&permil;per mille
8242&prime;minutes
8243&Prime;seconds
8249&lsaquo;single left angle quotation
8250&rsaquo;single right angle quotation
8254&oline;overline
8364&euro;euro
8482&trade;trademark
8592&larr;left arrow
8593&uarr;up arrow
8594&rarr;right arrow
8595&darr;down arrow
8596&harr;left right arrow
8629&crarr;carriage return arrow
8901&sdot;dot operator
8968&lceil;left ceiling
8969&rceil;right ceiling
8970&lfloor;left floor
8971&rfloor;right floor
9674&loz;lozenge
9824&spades;spade
9827&clubs;club
9829&hearts;heart
9830&diams;diamond